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2022考研英语真题精讲之英一翻译

来源:天任教育 | 更新时间:2022-05-20

2022考研英语

2022考研英语真题精讲之英一翻译

(S1-S8)

【真题原文】

①Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. ②What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn. ③(61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature,and so on. ④Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. ⑤(62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. ⑥The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. ⑦It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze. ⑧(63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. ⑨As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. ⑩It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views,and these are strongly entrenched. ⑪Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. ⑫(64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. ⑬A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. ⑭It also raises questions concerning “values.” ⑮Who will use a technology and to what ends? ⑯(65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

【逐句精讲】

①Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone.

and连接的两句话(并列句):

① Almost all our major problems involve human behavior.

major adj.主要的;主修的;n.主修课;专业课;v.主修(与介词in进行搭配)

involve v. 涉及;卷入;需要;参与;陷入

involved adj. ①有关的;参与的;涉及的;②复杂的;难懂的

译文:几乎我们(人类)所有重大的问题都和人类行为有关;

② they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone.

they指problems

physical adj.物理的;身体的;实体的;有形的

physicist n.物理学家。

biological adj.生物学的;生物的

alone adv.单独。

译文:这些问题仅仅依靠物理和生物技术是无法解决的。

【完整译文】

①几乎我们(人类)所有重大的问题都和人类行为有关;并且,这些问题仅仅依靠物理和生物技术是无法解决的。

②What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.

but连接两个句子,构成并列句:

① What is needed is a technology of behavior.

what引导主语从句做句子主语,is needed是被动结构,即:所需要的

译文:我们所需的是一种行为技术。

(英文被动句翻译:中文习惯用人做主语,英文习惯用被动结构或者用代词做主语。翻译成中文时,需要注意适当添加句子主语,如这个句子增译“我们”。)

② we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.

slow to do sth:迟迟不...;缓慢

From which引导定语从句:from which such a technology might be drawn.

such a technology指上文的:a technology of behavior

draw sth from sb/sth:从...中获得/得到。(这里用的是被动,介词提前,构成了from which的结构)

(定语从句起即修饰作用,一般放在被修饰的成分之前,如果这个修饰成分太长,就独立成句。)

译文:在发展一门可以产生这种技术的科学方面,我们的进展一直很缓慢。

【完整译文】

②我们所需的是一种行为技术;但是,在发展一门可以产生这种技术的科学方面,进展却一直很缓慢。

③(61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on.

difficult adj. 困难的的;难的。

difficulty n. 困难;难题;困境

that引导表语从句:almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to ①states of mind, ②feelings, ③traits of character, ④human nature, and so on.

表语从句中all做主语,of后面是介词短语修饰all,what后面是介词of的宾语从句:what is called behavioral science:所有称之为行为科学的

continue to do sth:继续做某事

trace sth to sth:找到/追溯/发现...的根源。

① states of mind, ② feelings, ③ traits of character, ④ human nature,

state of mind:心理状态;心态

trait: n. 特点;特征;特性

character n. 性格;人物

human nature:人性

【完整译文】

有一个困难在于,几乎所有被称作行为的科学的东西(学科)都依然还在从心理状态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找人类行为的根源。

④Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them.

physics n. 物理学

biology n. 生物学

similar adj. 类似的

similarly adv. 类似地

similarity n. 相似性

dissimilar adj. 不同的

advance v. 发展;进步;促进;推动;adj. 预先的;事先的

advanced adj. ①先进的;②高级的;高等的;③晚期的;后期的

and做连词连接两个谓语动词:followed和advanced

Only when引导时间状语从句置于句尾:they discarded them(只有当他们抛弃它们)。

discard v. 丢弃。

【完整译文】

④物理学和生物学曾有过类似的经历,而且,只有当摒弃了这些东西之后,它们才有了发展。

⑤(62)The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.

该句可划分为主句:The behavioral sciences have been slow to change.和原因状语从句,其中and连接两个原因状语从句,分别为:partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed和partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.

Explanatory:adj. 解释的,说明的

Item:n. 项目,条款;一件商品(或物品);一则,一条(新闻);(关系亲密的)一对;一件商品(或物品);adv. (用于介绍清单上逐个项目之前)又,此外还有v. 逐条列出,记下(改词词义较为灵活,需要注意上下文语境。另外英二翻译也曾出现过,需要注意)

Observe:v. 注意到,观察到;注视,监视;(在科学研究中)观测,发现

主句译文:行为科学一直难以改变。(注意完成时态:have been)

从句1译文:部分原因是解释性的项目似乎经常被直接观察到。(注意被动语态:be observed)

从句2译文:部分原因是其他类型的解释一直难以找到。

【完整译文】

行为科学一直变化缓慢,部分原因是解释性的项目似乎经常是直接观察到的,也有部分原因是其他类型的解释一直很难找到。

⑥The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure.

But连接前后两个句子,构成并列句。

Obviously:adv. (用于强调)显然,显而易见;明显地

Remain:v. 逗留,留下;剩余,遗留;保持不变,一直是;仍需去做(或处理)

n. 剩余(物),遗迹;遗体,残骸

Obscure:adj. 难以说清楚的,模糊的;不确定的;费解的,晦涩的

句子1:The environment is obviously important.:显然,环境非常重要。

句子2: its role has remained obscure:其作用仍不清晰。

【完整译文】

显然,环境非常重要,但其作用仍不清晰。

⑦It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.

该句为并列句,分别由“,”和“and”连接,可分为句子1:It does not push or pull;句子2:it selects和句子3:this function is difficult to discover and analyze。

Push:v. 推,按;挤,推搡;敦促,强迫;努力争取,力劝

Pull:v. (用手)拉,拽

Analyze:v. 对……进行分析,分解(等于 analyse)

句1译文:它不是推或者拉

句2译文:它是选择

句3译文:这个功能很难去发现和分析

【完整译文】

它不是推或拉,而是选择,这个功能很难发现和分析。

⑧(63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.

该句是由and连接的两个并列句。两个短句主语相对较长,句1主语为:The role of natural selection in evolution:自然选择在进化中的作用;句2主语为:the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual:环境在塑造和维持个人行为中的选择作用。

natural selection:自然选择;物竞天择

evolution:n. 进化(论);演变,发展

formulate:v. 制定,规划;确切表达,认真阐述

selective:adj. 认真挑选的,严格筛选的;选择性的,有选择的

shape: v. 形成;塑造

individual:adj. 单独的,个别的;个人的;独特的,与众不同的

n. 个人,个体;

recognize:v. 认识,辨别出;承认,意识到

句1译文:自然选择在进化中的作用是在一百多年前才被阐明的。

句2译文:环境在塑造和维持个体行为方面的选择作用只是刚刚开始被认识和研究。

【完整译文】

自然选择在进化中的作用是在一百多年前才被阐明,而环境在塑造和维持个体行为方面的选择作用只是刚刚开始被认识和研究。


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