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2023考研英语真题精讲之英一翻译

来源:天任考研  |  更新时间:2022-04-04 14:36:06  |  关键词: 2023考研英语真题从哪一年开始做比较好 2023考研英语一真题电子版

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2023考研英语真题精讲之英一翻译

2023考研英语真题精讲之英一翻译

S1-S8)

 

真题原文】

①Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. ②What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn. ③(61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature,and so on. ④Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. ⑤(62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. ⑥The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. ⑦It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze. ⑧(63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. ⑨As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. ⑩It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views,and these are strongly entrenched. ⑪Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. ⑫(64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. ⑬A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. ⑭It also raises questions concerning “values.” ⑮Who will use a technology and to what ends? ⑯(65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

【逐句精讲】

As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available.

结构分析:本句是as引导的状语从句,as引导从句,主句由and连接,构成并列结构。

interaction n. 互动,交流;相互影响,相互作用

organism n. 生物,有机体,(尤指)微生物

assign v. 分派,布置(工作、任务);分配(某物);指派,派遣

assigned adj. 指定的;已分配的

accessible adj. 可到达的,可进入的;易得到的,可使用的;可以理解的

available adj. 可用的,可获得的;有空的

1译文As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood:随着生物和环境之间的相互作用逐渐被理解

2译文:effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions:曾经被归结为心理状态、情感和性格特征的作用,现在开始被归结到某些可接近的条件作用

3译文a technology of behavior may therefore become available.因此,产生一种行为技术才变得可能。

【完整译文】

然而,随着人们开始理解生物与环境间的相互作用(被动句译成主动句),曾经被归结为心理状态、情感和性格特征的作用,现在开始被归结到某些可接近的条件作用;因此,产生一种行为技术才变得可能。

 

It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched.

结构分析:本句包含由until引导的时间状语从句“直到……才”;主句为:It will not solve our problemsuntil引导两个简单句,由and连接(these代词,指代的是前文的views)。

traditional adj. 传统的;因袭的,守旧的;(活动)惯例的,经常从事的;典型的,普通的

prescientific adj. 近代科学出现以前的;科学发展以前的

entrenched adj. 根深蒂固的;确立的,不容易改的

It will not solve our problems.

译文它(这)解决不了我们的问题。

it replaces traditional prescientific views.

(联系上下文it在这里指代的是a technology of behavior

译文:行为技术取代科学出现之前形成的传统观念。

③these are strongly entrenched.

译文:这些观念根深蒂固。

【完整译文】

⑩然而,除非行为技术取代科学出现之前形成的传统观念,否则它无法解决我们的问题,而这些观念根深蒂固。(这里需要注意until的翻译,until字面意义为“直到……才”;而在这个句子中,并不十分强调时间,转而译成了“除非……否则”)

 

⑪Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty.

dignity n. 尊严,自尊;庄严,端庄,庄重

illustrate v. 加插图于;说明,阐明;证明,证实

difficulty n. 困难;难题;困境

【完整译文】

自由和尊严就能说明困难程度。

 

⑫(64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements.

结构分析:本句是由and连接的两个小句,句子均为主系表结构;第一小句需要注意双重所有格,第二小句需要注意in which引导定语从句修饰practices,从句是被动语态(is held),翻译时需要注意。

possession n. <正式> 拥有,持有;个人财产,所有物;

autonomous : adj. 自治的,有自治权的;自主的,有自主权的

essential : adj. 必不可少的,非常重要的;基本的

n. 必不可少的东西,必需品

conduct : v. 实施,进行;指挥;带领,引导

n. 行为,举止;经营方式,管理方法

give credit for: 把……归功于;因……而受到表扬

句一译文:They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory:它们是传统理论定义的自主人的所有物(需要注意这里的they指代的是上一句的freedom and dignityself-governing解释autonomous意思一样,翻译出一个即可)

句二译文:they are essential to practices:它们是练习(做法)的必要条件。

句三译文:a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements一个人应该对他的行为负责,因其成就受到赞扬。

【完整译文】

它们是传统理论定义的自主人的所有物,是要求一个人应该对其行为负责并因其成就给予肯定的必不可少的前提。

 

⑬A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment.

结构分析:本句为简单句,注意寻找谓语动词

shifts v. (使)移动,(使)转移;(句中使用的是动词词性,做谓语常和to搭配)

n. 改变,转变;

responsibility n. 责任,负责;(对不良事件所负的)责任

【完整译文】

科学分析把重心从责任和成就转向了环境。

 

⑭It also raises questions concerning “values.”

结构分析:本句为简单句,concerning 后置修饰questions

concerning prep. 关于,涉及

adj. 让人不安的,令人担忧的

v. 有关,关于;影响;使担心(concern 的现在分词形式)

【完整译文】

这也引发了关于“价值”的问题。

 

⑮Who will use a technology and to what ends?

结构分析:该句为and连接的并列句,分别Who(主) will use (谓)a technology(宾);句子2to what ends为省略形式,完整内容为:(he will use a technologyto what ends

end n. 最后部分,末尾;结束,结局;端点;目的;剩余物,残余

v. 结束,终止

1译文:谁将使用这个技术?

2译文:(他)要去达到什么目的?(注意ends:目的,这里是熟词僻义)

【完整译文】

谁来使用这一技术,又要达到何种目的?

 

⑯(65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

结构分析:本句结构较为复杂,既考察并列结构、状语从句,也考察省略情况。可划分为:Until these issues are resolved, /a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, /and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

句一是until引导的时间状语从句,包含被动语态are resolved,可译为:直到这些问题被解决。

句二:行为技术会继续被拒绝(排斥)。

句三相对较难,and做连词与句二并列,with做伴随状语,possibly副词做状语,the only way是主语,to solve our problems后置定语修饰主语,这里省略谓语will continue to be rejected(并列结构,谓语与前面一样,这里进行了省略),还原为:the only way to solve our problems will possibly continue to be rejected with it.可译为:解决问题的惟一方式可能也随之受到排斥。

rejectv. 拒绝,否决(提议、建议或请求);摈弃,不接受(信仰或政治制度)

n. 次品,废品;不合格者,被排斥者

【完整译文】

这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的唯一方式可能也随之继续受到排斥。(翻译最终未进行逐字对应,未把until译为直到,翻译时要注意until的正话反译


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