The generic computer contains input devices, a computational unit, and output devices. The computational unit is the computer’s heart, and usually consists of a central processing unit (CPU), a memory, an input/output (I/O) interface and other important components. To get a better understanding of computer organization, a brief overview of the computer’s organization is given in the flowing.
We build computer to solve problems. Early computer solved mathematical and engineering problems, and later computers emphasized information processing for business applications. Today, computers also control machines as diverse as automobile
engines, robots, and microwave ovens. A computer system solves a problem from any of these domains by accepting input, processing it, and producing output. Computer systems consist of hardware and software. Hardware is the physical part of the system. Once designed, hardware is difficult and expensive to change. Software is the set of programs that instruct the hardware and is easier to modify than hardware. Computers are valuable because they are general-purpose machines that can solve many different kinds of problems, as opposed to special-purpose machines that can each solve only one kind of problem. Different problems can be solved with the same hardware by supplying the system with a different set of instructions, that is, with different software. Every computer has four basic hardware components: input devices, output devices, main memory, and central processing unit (CPU).
The lines between the blocks represent the flow of information flows from one component to another on the bus, which is simply a group of wires connecting the components. Processing occurs in the CPU and main memory. The organization with the components connected to each other by the bus, is common. However, other configurations are possible as well. Just the CPU of a mainframe often occupies an entire cabinet. Its input/output (I/O) devices and memory might fill an entire room. Microcomputers can be small enough to fit on a desk or in a briefcase. As technology advances, the amount of processing previously possible only on large machines becomes possible on smaller machines. Microcomputers now can do much of the work that only minicomputers or mainframes could do in the past.
一般计算机包含输入设备，计算单元，和输出设备。计算单元是计算机的心脏，通常包括一个中央处理单元(CPU)， 存储器，输入/输出(I/O) 接口和其他重要的组成部分。为了更好地了解计算机组成，下面简要概述了计算机的组成。
模块之间的连线代表信息流通过总线从一个组件流入到另一个组件的流向，总线只不过是连接组成部分的一组电线。信息处理发生在 CPU 和主存储器。组件之间通常是通过总线彼此相连的。然而，其他配置也是可能的。大型主机的 CPU 主机往往占据整个橱柜。它的输入/输出(I/O)设备和内存也可能填满整个房间。微型计算机可以足够小，适合于办公桌或公文包里。随着技术的进步，以前只能在大型机上的处理数据量现在小型机上变为可能。微机现在可以做许多以前只有小型机或大型机可以做的工作。